Mongoose schema mixed type

A Mongoose schema defines the structure of the document, default values, validators, etc., whereas a Mongoose model provides an interface to the Here we define a property called email with a schema type String which maps to an internal validator that will be triggered when the model is saved to the.. Get Mongoose for Application Development now with O'Reilly online learning. O'Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers. There are eight types of data that can—by default—be set in a Mongoose schema Oftentimes the data you're designing will need more than just a simple datatype to contain all the information. Sometimes the nested data will need to have a whole structure of its own. This is where you will need to ask yourself a crucial question: should I use embedded documents or reference a separate document with an ObjectId? Let's look at examples of both:person.anything = { x: [3, 4, { y: "changed" }] }; person.markModified('anything'); person.save(); // anything will now get saved ObjectIds 要指定类型为 ObjectId,在声明中使用 Schema.Types.ObjectId。

Copy link Quote reply Collaborator vkarpov15 commented Mar 28, 2020 @mkovel is correct, you can call discriminator() on certain schema types. FWIW batchSchema.path('events') does NOT return a schema, it returns a SchemaTypelet model = new UserModel({ firstName: 'Thomas', lastName: 'Anderson' }) let initials = model.getInitials() console.log(initials) // This will output: TAStatic MethodsSimilar to instance methods, we can create static methods on the schema. Let’s create a method to retrieve all users in the database:

// Object 1 { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", author: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ], published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English", publisher: { name: "O'Reilly Media", founded: 1980, location: "CA" } } // Object 2 { title: "50 Tips and Tricks for MongoDB Developer", author: "Kristina Chodorow", published_date: ISODate("2011-05-06"), pages: 68, language: "English", publisher: { name: "O'Reilly Media", founded: 1980, location: "CA" } } In this instance, the publisher data is repeated. This will begin to make our database slow and bulky when we begin to enter thousands or tens of thousands of repeated information about the same publisher in the parent data of all the books that publisher has published.let emailSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ email: String })Here we define a property called email with a schema type String which maps to an internal validator that will be triggered when the model is saved to the database. It will fail if the data type of the value is not a string type.// extend resolve params with hook rp.beforeRecordMutate = async function(doc, rp) { doc.userTouchedAt = new Date(); const canMakeUpdate = await performAsyncTask( ...provide data from doc... ) if (!canMakeUpdate) { throw new Error('Forbidden!'); } return doc; } You can provide your implementation directly in type composer:Middleware are functions that run at specific stages of a pipeline. Mongoose supports middleware for the following operations:var eventSchema = new Schema({ message: String }, { discriminatorKey: 'kind', _id: false }); var batchSchema = new Schema({ events: [eventSchema] }); batchSchema.path('events').discriminator('Clicked', new Schema({ element: String }, { _id: false })); batchSchema.path('events').discriminator('Purchased', new Schema({ product: String }, { _id: false })); var MyModel = db.model('gh2723', batchSchema); var doc = { events: [ { kind: 'Clicked', element: 'Test' }, { kind: 'Purchased', product: 'Test2' } ] }; MyModel.create(doc). then(function(doc) { // doc.events[0] has an 'element' property, doc.events[1] has a 'product' property }); 👍 27 vkarpov15 closed this Jan 31, 2017 Copy link Quote reply tomasdev commented Aug 12, 2018 • edited Most use cases of this, can actually be simplified using multiple properties. For example, instead of

node.js - understanding mongoose [Schema.Types.Mixed

mongoose schema types ObjectRocket Mixed

// This is **not** how you define a `nested.type` property const schema = new mongoose.Schema({ nested: { type: String } }); schema.path('nested'); // SchemaString { ... } schema.path('nested.type'); // undefined There are several workarounds for this use case. One is to set the typeKey option as shown below.EmailModel .findOneAndRemove({ email: 'theoutlander@live.com' }) .then(response => { console.log(response) }) .catch(err => { console.error(err) })HelpersWe have looked at some of the basic functionality above known as CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations, but Mongoose also provides the ability to configure several types of helper methods and properties. These can be used to further simplify working with data.let mongoose = require('mongoose') let emailSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ email: String }) module.exports = mongoose.model('Email', emailSchema)A schema definition should be simple, but its complexity is usually based on application requirements. Schemas can be reused and they can contain several child-schemas too. In the example above, the value of the email property is a simple value type. However, it can also be an object type with additional properties on it.import { connect, connection, Connection } from 'mongoose'; import { Contact, ContactModel } from './../models/contactsModel'; declare interface IModels { Contact: ContactModel; } export class DB { private static instance: DB; private _db: Connection; private _models: IModels; private constructor() { connect(process.env.MONGO_URI, { useNewUrlParser: true }); this._db = connection; this._db.on('open', this.connected); this._db.on('error', this.error); this._models = { Contact: new Contact().model // this is where we initialise all models } } public static get Models() { if (!DB.instance) { DB.instance = new DB(); } return DB.instance._models; } private connected() { console.log('Mongoose has connected'); } private error(error) { console.log('Mongoose has errored', error); } } The code block above is also a little lengthy but it’s all simple stuff. I didn’t want to create the database instance in the main.ts file, nor did I want to have to rely on any 1 part of the project from which to construct it. This type of programming pattern is called a singleton pattern. If you’re not familiar with this, tutorials point have a fantastic explanation on this: Design Pattern – Singleton Patternconst userSchema = new Schema({ name: String, address: { street: String, city: String, state: String, zip: Number } }); This allows us to do some additional validation and manipulation of the incoming data by adding options to each of these embedded properties:

However, Mongoose adds a layer of structure on top of the typical "Wild West" MongoDB way of doing things. This helps us perform additional validation to ensure that our users aren't submitting junk data into our database without us having to write tons of boilerplate code ourselves.npm install mongoose validatorThe above install command will install the latest version of the libraries. The Mongoose syntax in this article is specific to Mongoose v5 and beyond. mongoose-schema-extend. Implements schema inheritance and an optional discriminator key which is useful for storing different types of related documents in a collection and fetching them with the correct model type { _id: 5a7bbbeebc3b49cb919da675, firstName: 'Thomas', lastName: 'Anderson', updatedAt: 2018-02-08T02:54:38.888Z, createdAt: 2018-02-08T02:54:38.888Z, __v: 0 }PluginsSuppose that we want to track when a record was created and last updated on every collection in our database. Instead of repeating the above process, we can create a plugin and apply it to every schema.var ToySchema = new Schema({ name: String }); var ToyBox = new Schema({ toys: [ToySchema], buffers: [Buffer], string: [String], numbers: [Number] // ... etc }); 注意:指定空数组相当于 Mixed。以下操作相当于创建 Mixed 数组:

Introduction to Mongoose for MongoDB 2

  1. Let's build a mongoose Schema to represent the data types we just talked about. In a later video we'll be digging into the mongoose API in more detail, but for now we'll tackle the most used aspect of mongoose - which is the creation and usage of Schema's. We'll start by creating a file called..
  2. const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const Schema = mongoose.Schema; const Contact = new Schema({ name: string; email: string; phone?: string; message?: string; creation_date: Date; }); A Typed Model. Now to convert to TypeScript, we need to change the imports and export a class
  3. var ToySchema = new Schema({ toys: { type: [ToySchema], default: undefined } }); 创建自定义 Type Mongoose 可以扩展自定义 SchemaTypes。搜索 插件 页面,查找类似mongoose-long, mongoose-int32, 以及其他 types 的兼容 types。
  4. varunjayaraman added help wanted and removed help wanted labels Jan 27, 2017 Copy link Quote reply Collaborator vkarpov15 commented Jan 31, 2017 = 4.8.0 supports this:

How to store multiple schema types in an mongoose subdocuments

  1. let mongoose = require('mongoose')This reference will be the same as the one that was returned when we connected to the database, which means the schema and model definitions will not need to explicitly connect to the database.
  2. const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String, address: String }); As it is now, a user will need to submit their address as a single string: 123 West Example St. Pawnee, IN, 12345. This isn't very helpful though, because what if we someday want to query the database for all citizens in the city of Pawnee? It would be very difficult and burdensome to do so if we leave our address property as a single string. Instead, we need to split it into its own object:
  3. Donate Stay safe, friends. Learn to code from home. Use our free 2,000 hour curriculum. 11 February 2018 / #Nodejs Introduction to Mongoose for MongoDB by Nick Karnik
  4. Let’s create a virtual property called fullName which can be used to set values on firstName and lastName and retrieve them as a combined value when read:
  5. var sampleSchema = new Schema({ name: { type: String, required: true } }); console.log(sampleSchema.path('name')); // Output looks like: /** * SchemaString { * enumValues: [], * regExp: null, * path: 'name', * instance: 'String', * validators: ... */ 这个函数可以检查给定字段路径的检验器和类型等信息。

@mcarpenter Twitter 1LLmattic GitHub diddy225 Website github.com/diddy225 Let’s create a file ./src/model/plugins/timestamp.js and replicate the above functionality as a reusable module:

Mongoose 5.0 中文文档 schema.path() 函

const UserModel = mongoose.model('User', userSchema); const doc = new UserModel({ name: 'Jean-Luc Picard', age: '59' // Mongoose will convert this to a number }); doc.age; // 59 await doc.save(); // Mongoose will convert '60' from a string to a number, even in an update await UserModel.updateOne({}, { $set: { age: '60' } }); Validation In addition to casting values, Mongoose also lets you define validation in your schemas. For example, suppose you want to ensure your users have a name. You can make the name property required in your schema as shown below.let timestampPlugin = require('./plugins/timestamp') emailSchema.plugin(timestampPlugin) userSchema.plugin(timestampPlugin)Query BuildingMongoose has a very rich API that handles many complex operations supported by MongoDB. Consider a query where we can incrementally build query components.

Working with Mongoose Collection Level Discriminators

Automattic locked as resolved and limited conversation to collaborators Mar 28, 2020 Sign up for free to subscribe to this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in. Assignees No one assigned Labels None yet Projects None yet Milestone No milestone Linked pull requests Successfully merging a pull request may close this issue.var schema2 = new Schema({ test: { type: String, index: true, unique: true // Unique index. If you specify `unique: true` // specifying `index: true` is optional if you do `unique: true` } }); String lowercase: 布尔值 是否在保存前对此值调用 .toLowerCase() uppercase: 布尔值 是否在保存前对此值调用 .toUpperCase() trim: 布尔值 是否在保存前对此值调用 .trim() match: 正则表达式 创建验证器检查这个值是否匹配给定正则表达式 enum: 数组 创建验证器检查这个值是否包含于给定数组 Number min: 数值 创建验证器检查属性是否大于或等于该值 max: 数值 创建验证器检查属性是否小于或等于该值 Date min: Date max: Date 使用注意 Dates 内建 Date 方法 不会触发 mongoose 修改跟踪逻辑, 如果你对使用 setMonth() 修改文档里的 Date, mongoose在 doc.save() 的时候是察觉不到这个文档发生了变化的,因此保存不到数据库。 如果你一定要用内建 Date 方法, 请手动调用 doc.markModified('pathToYourDate') 告诉 mongoose 你修改了数据。‘Collections’ in Mongo are equivalent to tables in relational databases. They can hold multiple JSON documents.

graphql-compose-mongoose · graphql-compos

import { DB } from './../controllers/db'; // within some class, this is called.. let contact = new DB.Models.Contact( { name: req.body.name, email: req.body.email, phone: req.body.phone, message: req.body.message, course_enquiry: req.body.course_enquiry } ); contact.save((err) => { if(err) { return next(err); } res.status(200).json({ result: "success" }); }); Similarly, finding objects is almost identical:If you try to repeat the save operation above, you will get an error because we have specified that the email field should be unique.module.exports = mongoose.model('Email', emailSchema)Let’s combine the above code into ./src/models/email.js to define the contents of a basic email model: var UserSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ name: String }); module.exports = mongoose.model(User, UserSchema); Beside the title property, the PostSchema also defines the reference by ObjectId for the postedBy property of the PostSchema as well as the postedBy property..

Can I get generated vanilla GraphQL types?

var Empty1 = new Schema({ any: [] }); var Empty2 = new Schema({ any: Array }); var Empty3 = new Schema({ any: [Schema.Types.Mixed] }); var Empty4 = new Schema({ any: [{}] }); 数组的默认值是 [] (空数组)。 Closed AjitkumarB opened this issue Jan 24, 2017 · 13 comments Closed How to store multiple schema types in an mongoose subdocuments array #4929 AjitkumarB opened this issue Jan 24, 2017 · 13 comments Comments Copy link Quote reply AjitkumarB commented Jan 24, 2017 var modelSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ name: { type: String }, personas: [typeA | typeB] // need one of two types here(typeA schema,typeB schema) }); Copy link Quote reply r3wt commented Dec 6, 2019 @r3wt we'll have enum for numbers in 5.8.0, see #8139

On the other hand, there are times when instead of embedding the data directly into the parent resource, it makes sense to save that data as its own separate document in its own separate collection, and then reference the _id of the child document inside the parent document. Let's look at a good example of when this might be the best way to structure your data, straight from the MongoDB docs:This is a plugin for graphql-compose, which derives GraphQLType from your mongoose model. Also derives bunch of internal GraphQL Types. Provide all CRUD resolvers, including graphql connection, also provided basic search via operators ($lt, $gt and so on).Depending on how you decide is best to perform these operations, you may benefit from a third-party plugin/package called mongoose-findorcreate.For example, the typeKey option lets you configure what key Mongoose looks for to determine if you're defining a nested path. Suppose you wanted to define a nested key named type:

Mongoose Models and Schemas with Typescript - Know Thy Cod

  1. // Default import for using under node v6 and above import { composeWithMongoose } from 'graphql-compose-mongoose'; // For using node 8 and above (native async/await) import { composeWithMongoose } from 'graphql-compose-mongoose/node8'; // Source code without Flowtype declarations import { composeWithMongoose } from 'graphql-compose-mongoose/es'; Example Live demo: https://graphql-compose.herokuapp.com/
  2. Copy link Quote reply Collaborator varunjayaraman commented Jan 24, 2017 You have to use a Mixed type: http://mongoosejs.com/docs/schematypes.html
  3. { _id: 5a78fe3e2f44ba8f85a2409a, email: 'theoutlander@live.com', __v: 0 }Delete RecordWe will use the findOneAndRemove call to delete a record. It returns the original document that was removed:
  4. const userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ // Make `name` required name: { type: String, required: true }, age: Number }); const UserModel = mongoose.model('User', userSchema); const doc = new UserModel({ age: 30 }); const err = await doc.save().catch(err => err); err.message; // Path `name` is required. Options The schema constructor takes 2 parameters: definition and options. You can find a complete list of schema options on the Mongoose docs.

SchemaType 处理字段路径各种属性的定义( defaults, validation, getters, setters, field selection defaults for queries, and other general characteristics for Strings and Numbers) Copy link Quote reply r3wt commented May 1, 2019 @vkarpov15 will discrimantors work with a typed field such as in the following schema?Last on the list now is to import the database controller. Any other controller or route (eg: if using express) would look something like this:import { schemaComposer } from 'graphql-compose'; // get the default schemaComposer or your created schemaComposer import { convertSchemaToGraphQL } from 'graphql-compose-mongoose'; convertSchemaToGraphQL(ImageDataStructure, 'EmbeddedImage', schemaComposer); // Force this type on this mongoose schema Before continuing to convert your models to TypeComposers:

Introduction to Mongoose Schemas - Mastering J

Mongoose — Brief Introduction. Mongoose is an Object Data Modeling (ODM) library for MongoDB and Node.js. It manages relationships between data, provides schema validation, and is used to translate between objects in code and the representation of those objects in MongoDB var eventSchema = new Schema({ message: String }, { discriminatorKey: 'kind', _id: false }); var batchSchema = new Schema({ events: [eventSchema] }); batchSchema.path('events').discriminator('Clicked', new Schema({ element: String }, { _id: false })); batchSchema.path('events').discriminator('Purchased', new Schema({ product: String }, { _id: false })); var MyModel = db.model('gh2723', batchSchema); var doc = { events: [ { kind: 'Clicked', element: 'Test' }, { kind: 'Purchased', product: 'Test2' } ] }; MyModel.create(doc). then(function(doc) { // doc.events[0] has an 'element' property, doc.events[1] has a 'product' property }); Hey @vkarpov15, I can't call discriminator method on schema, I need to create the model first but your example above shows otherwise. Can you please clarify?import { DB } from './../controllers/db'; DB.Models.Contact.find({}, (err, results) => { if(err) { return next(err); } res.status(200).json(results); }); mongoose find result typed Clearing Up So, a few questions I can imagine myself having if I were looking at this article?

Mongoose Schema Guide - DE

  1. ‘Models’ are higher-order constructors that take a schema and create an instance of a document equivalent to records in a relational database.
  2. userSchema.methods.getInitials = function() { return this.firstName[0] + this.lastName[0] }This method will be accessible via a model instance:
  3. const userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ name: String, age: Number }); userSchema.path('name'); // SchemaString { ... } userSchema.path('age'); // SchemaNumber { ... } To create a model in Mongoose, you call the mongoose.model() function with a schema as the 2nd parameter. For example, UserModel in the below example will have name and age properties, and will strip out any properties that aren't defined in userSchema.
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  5. Authentication is the process of allowing a user of your application to create an account, sign in, have specific user permissions, get data that only concerns them as a user,
  6. userSchema.statics.getUsers = function() { return new Promise((resolve, reject) => { this.find((err, docs) => { if(err) { console.error(err) return reject(err) } resolve(docs) }) }) }Calling getUsers on the Model class will return all the users in the database:

Mongoose Schema Basics Simple schema data types

// This creates our model from the above schema, using mongoose's model method let User = mongoose.model("User", UserSchema); // Export the User model module.exports = User; Use the model var numberSchema = new Schema({ integerOnly: { type: Number, get: v => Math.round(v), set: v => Math.round(v), alias: 'i' } }); var Number = mongoose.model('Number', numberSchema); var doc = new Number(); doc.integerOnly = 2.001; doc.integerOnly; // 2 doc.i; // 2 doc.i = 3.001; doc.integerOnly; // 3 doc.i; // 3 索引相关 你可以使用 schema type 选项定义MongoDB indexes。ES6 makes it very easy for us to create a singleton (single instance) pattern because of how the module loader works by caching the response of a previously imported file.import mongoose from 'mongoose'; import { composeWithMongoose } from 'graphql-compose-mongoose'; const UserProfile = mongoose.model('UserProfile', UserProfile); const Article = mongoose.model('Article', Article); const UserProfileTC = composeWithMongoose(UserProfile); const ArticleTC = composeWithMongoose(Article); Then, you can use queries like this:

mongoose schema types. Written by Data Pilot. February 24, 2020. var schema = new Schema({ name : String, age : Number, dateOfBirth: Date, Id: mongoose.ObjectIds onSite: true, locations: [String], Data: Buffer, others : Schema.Types.Mixed }) UserModel.getUsers() .then(docs => { console.log(docs) }) .catch(err => { console.error(err) })Adding instance and static methods is a nice approach to implement an interface to database interactions on collections and records.Mongoose Schemas can be very powerful, but before we jump into the nitty gritty, let's make sure we cover the basics. We'll be using the following Mongoose Schema for reference:var schema1 = new Schema({ test: String // `test` is a path of type String }); var schema2 = new Schema({ test: { type: String } // `test` is a path of type string }); 除了 type 属性,你还可以对这个字段路径指定其他属性。 如果你要在保存之前要把字母都改成小写:

Mongoose JS Tutorial - 2 - Schema Design - YouTub

mongoose: Referencing schema in properties or Alexander Zeitle

mongoose schema inheritance and discriminator key extensio

How to add custom fields?

While you can interact with Mongo directly using Mongo Driver, Mongoose will simplify that interaction by allowing you to model relationships between data and validate them easily.(doc: mixed, rp: ResolverResolveParams) => Promise<*>, The typical implementation may be like this:Fun Fact: Mongoose is created by Valeri Karpov who is an incredibly talented engineer! He coined the term The MEAN Stack.As discussed above, notice how when you cycle through the typings of the results, your properties will now exist as a type. This saves a great deal of time trying to remember what parameters you used, and will throw compiler errors if you try to access a parameter that isn’t listed.let model = new UserModel() model.fullName = 'Thomas Anderson' console.log(model.toJSON()) // Output model fields as JSON console.log() console.log(model.fullName) // Output the full nameThe code above will output the following:

Video: NodeJS Mongoose Schema Professional Programme

Data types allowed in schemas - Mongoose for Application

userSchema.pre('save', function (next) { let now = Date.now() this.updatedAt = now // Set a value for createdAt only if it is null if (!this.createdAt) { this.createdAt = now } // Call the next function in the pre-save chain next() })Let’s create and save our model: Our mission: to help people learn to code for free. We accomplish this by creating thousands of videos, articles, and interactive coding lessons - all freely available to the public. We also have thousands of freeCodeCamp study groups around the world. UserTC.wrapResolverResolve('updateById', next => async rp => { // extend resolve params with hook rp.beforeRecordMutate = async (doc, resolveParams) => { ... }; return next(rp); }); or you can create wrappers for example to protect access:UserModel.find() // find all users .skip(100) // skip the first 100 items .limit(10) // limit to 10 items .sort({firstName: 1} // sort ascending by firstName .select({firstName: true} // select firstName only .exec() // execute the query .then(docs => { console.log(docs) }) .catch(err => { console.error(err) })ClosingWe have barely scratched the surface exploring some of the capabilities of Mongoose. It is a rich library full of useful and and powerful features that make it a joy to work with data models in the application layer.

Let’s navigate through some of the basics of Mongoose by implementing a model that represents data for a simplified address book.Database modeling is not a simple task. This is the kind of thing that database architects get paid 6 figures to figure out. So don't feel bad if it takes a lot of practice before some of this starts to make sense.‘Documents’ are equivalent to records or rows of data in SQL. While a SQL row can reference data in other tables, Mongo documents usually combine that in a document.

Following are all valid Schema Types. 接下来是Mongoose中所有可用的数据类型。 To tell Mongoose that the value of a Mixed type has changed, call the .markModified(path) method of the document passing the path to the Mixed type you just changed Make socialHandles a mixed type property. Mongoose maps inherit from native JavaScript's Map type, so you get the same functionality as JavaScript maps with some extra mongoose syntactic sugar baked in Installation npm install graphql graphql-compose mongoose graphql-compose-mongoose --save Modules graphql, graphql-compose, mongoose are in peerDependencies, so should be installed explicitly in your app. They have global objects and should not have ability to be installed as submodule.EmailModel .findOneAndUpdate( { email: 'ada.lovelace@gmail.com' // search query }, { email: 'theoutlander@live.com' // field:values to update }, { new: true, // return updated doc runValidators: true // validate before update }) .then(doc => { console.log(doc) }) .catch(err => { console.error(err) })The document returned will contain the updated email:


Copy link Quote reply r3wt commented May 6, 2019 • edited @vkarpov15 i can't use String, because the constant values are int and strict equality is used everywhere. I just removed the enum for nowI appreciate it, but there was no way around it so we we ended up migrating all codebase to String and it is working without any issue now. I am glad to see this feature though, now i can save disk space by using more numeric enums for hardcoded valueslet mongoose = require('mongoose') let userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ firstName: String, lastName: String, createdAt: Date, updatedAt: Date }) module.exports = mongoose.model('User', userSchema)When model.save() is called, there is a pre(‘save’, …) and post(‘save’, …) event that is triggered. For the second parameter, you can pass a function that is called when the event is triggered. These functions take a parameter to the next function in the middleware chain.We need to call the model constructor on the Mongoose instance and pass it the name of the collection and a reference to the schema definition.

Mongoose初步学习 - 掘金 1---Schema

Schema.Type是由Mongoose内定的一些数据类型,基本数据类型都在其中,它也内置了一些Mongoose特有的Schema.Type。 Schema Types内置类型如下: String, Number, Boolean | Bool, Array, Buffer, Date, ObjectId, Mixed Copy link Quote reply bbhopesh commented Mar 23, 2020 = 4.8.0 supports this: module.exports = mongoose.model(User, userSchema); Simple schema data types. Above you saw examples of simple datatypes such as name: String, admin: Boolean, etc. You also saw the ability to add more specific instructions on how the validation should be handled let mongoose = require('mongoose') let validator = require('validator') let emailSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ email: { type: String, required: true, unique: true, lowercase: true, validate: (value) => { return validator.isEmail(value) } } }) module.exports = mongoose.model('Email', emailSchema)Basic OperationsMongoose has a flexible API and provides many ways to accomplish a task. We will not focus on the variations because that is out of scope for this article, but remember that most of the operations can be done in more than one way either syntactically or via the application architecture.

What's New in Mongoose 5

Similarly, we have turned our Database class into a singleton by returning an instance of the class in the module.exports statement because we only need a single connection to the database. Mixed type allows anything (without validating). As typeA and typeB are schemas and i want to validate them. We can do this for normal schema using discriminators or mongoose-schema-extend. But at subdocument level i didn't found any solution module.exports = function timestamp(schema) { // Add the two fields to the schema schema.add({ createdAt: Date, updatedAt: Date }) // Create a pre-save hook schema.pre('save', function (next) { let now = Date.now() this.updatedAt = now // Set a value for createdAt only if it is null if (!this.createdAt) { this.createdAt = now } // Call the next function in the pre-save chain next() }) }To use this plugin, we simply pass it to the schemas that should be given this functionality:


var Assignment = mongoose.model('Assignment', { dueDate: Date }); Assignment.findOne(function (err, doc) { doc.dueDate.setMonth(3); doc.save(callback); // THIS DOES NOT SAVE YOUR CHANGE doc.markModified('dueDate'); doc.save(callback); // works }) Mixed 一个啥都可以放的 SchemaType , 虽然便利,但也会让数据难以维护。 Mixed 可以通过 Schema.Types.Mixed 或 传入一个空对象定义。以下三种方法效果一致:let mongoose = require('mongoose') let userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ firstName: String, lastName: String }) module.exports = mongoose.model('User', userSchema)Virtual PropertyA virtual property is not persisted to the database. We can add it to our schema as a helper to get and set values. Have a question about this project? Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community. By clicking “Sign up for GitHub”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy statement. We’ll occasionally send you account related emails. Learn to code for free. freeCodeCamp's open source curriculum has helped more than 40,000 people get jobs as developers. Get started

In this example, let’s create a function to return the initials for the current user. Let’s add a custom helper method called getInitials to the schema:A "Schema" can be a tough thing to understand at first, but in reality it's pretty straightforward. A Schema for a database is akin to a "Class" in Object-Oriented Programming. Where a class is like a blueprint for creating objects in a program, a Schema is a blueprint for creating objects (MongoDB calls them "documents") in a database. We tell the database how the documents we're going to insert will be structured (it's going to have a name property which will be a "String" type, an admin property which will be of "Boolean" type, etc.), and the database can then do some validation for us. (Database: "Hey, you said any Person object is going to have a required name field, but this Person object you just tried to save doesn't. I'm rejecting it, and won't be adding it to the database. Kthxbye.").Type ‘IContact’ does not satisfy the constraint ‘Document’. Type ‘IContact’ is missing the following properties from type ‘Document’: increment, model, isDeleted, remove, and 51 more.ts(2344) In Mongoose, a schema is a configuration object for a model. Furthermore, Mongoose will cast documents to match the given schema types. Suppose you wanted to define a nested key named type Embedding documents looks very similar to what you've probably seen already with most complex JSON: arrays inside of objects, objects inside of arrays, objects inside of other objects, etc. Let's look at an example of a good time to use the embedded document style:

The MEAN Stack: Mistakes You're Probably Making MongoDB Blo

Typically, NoSQL databases are super flexible, in that they allow us to put whatever we want in them without enforcing any specific kind of structure. (Relational databases tend to be the opposite, enforcing that all items in the database look similar. So if you want to change the way your data looks, good luck because you'll need to change all items that are already in there).{ _id: 5a78fe3e2f44ba8f85a2409a, email: 'ada.lovelace@gmail.com', __v: 0 }The following fields are returned (internal fields are prefixed with an underscore):function adminAccess(resolvers) { Object.keys(resolvers).forEach((k) => { resolvers[k] = resolvers[k].wrapResolve(next => async rp => { // extend resolve params with hook rp.beforeRecordMutate = async function(doc, rp) { ... } return next(rp) }) }) return resolvers } // and wrap the resolvers schemaComposer.Mutation.addFields({ createResource: ResourceTC.getResolver('createOne'), createResources: ResourceTC.getResolver('createMany'), ...adminAccess({ updateResource: ResourceTC.getResolver('updateById'), removeResource: ResourceTC.getResolver('removeById'), }), }); Customization options When we convert model const UserTC = composeWithMongoose(User, customizationOptions); you may tune every piece of future derived types and resolvers.let UserModel = require('./user') let model = new UserModel({ fullName: 'Thomas Anderson' } msg.save() .then(doc => { console.log(doc) }) .catch(err => { console.error(err) })You should see values for createdAt and updatedAt when the record that is created is printed:

Next is an export of a Model interface. We do this so in our database controller the types carry through and persist despite being a singleton pattern.//import mongoose NPM module import mongoose from "mongoose"; // Save a reference to the Schema constructor `mongoose.model` let Schema = mongoose.Schema; Above we use the schema constructor mongoose.schema and save it in a variable called Schema. The first step is importing the necessary components from mongoose. Next we declare our object interface. This is what the actual database object should look like. Before we get started, let’s setup Mongo. You can choose from one of the following options (we are using option #1 for this article):While Mongo is schema-less, SQL defines a schema via the table definition. A Mongoose ‘schema’ is a document data structure (or shape of the document) that is enforced via the application layer.

Copy link Quote reply Collaborator vkarpov15 commented Dec 6, 2019 @r3wt we'll have enum for numbers in 5.8.0, see #8139Cool intro to schemas! I’ve been revisiting Mongoose recently and still not really sure if there’s a need to name the schema objects, since the only places I would pass them to are their respective model objects. Any thoughts on creating the schema directly inside mongoose.model’s second argument?

When you're feeling comfortable and ready to move on, check out the post on using Mongoose Schemas to perform CRUD operationsSo, you have created a simple on the front end, and a post route on the backend to store the data in our mongoDB via mongoose. Take a look below at our post route. We create a new instance of User and pass in req.body. We create a new document in our database and send user back to the client or an error if the information is not valid.

Quickstart Mongoose Guide that will get you up to speed in no tim

Copy link Quote reply Collaborator vkarpov15 commented May 6, 2019 @r3wt I believe so. However, you should use type: String, because type: Number doesn't support enumYou can also see examples of collections or more complex datatypes in the userSchema above. emailAddress for example, is going to be an array of strings. This way, a user is allowed to register multiple email addresses under their account information.const UserSchema = new Schema({ // `username` must be of type String // `username` will trim leading and trailing whitespace before it's saved // `username` is a required field and throws a custom error message if not supplied username: { type: String, trim: true, required: "Username is Required" }, // `password` must be of type String // `password` will trim leading and trailing whitespace before it's saved // `password` is a required field and throws a custom error message if not supplied // `password` uses a custom validation function to only accept values 6 characters or more password: { type: String, trim: true, required: "Password is Required", validate: [ function(input) { return input.length >= 6; }, "Password should be longer." ] }, // `email` must be of type String // `email` must be unique // `email` must match the regex pattern below and throws a custom error message if it does not email: { type: String, unique: true, match: [/.+@.+\..+/, "Please enter a valid e-mail address"] } }); Above, we are telling our Schema how to validate and store our data. We are basically saying i'm expecting the following information to come back. Your username has to be a string, it will trim all whitespace before and after your string, or throw an error if you try to submit blank.MongoDB is a schema-less NoSQL document database. It means you can store JSON documents in it, and the structure of these documents can vary as it is not enforced like SQL databases. This is one of the advantages of using NoSQL as it speeds up application development and reduces the complexity of deployments.Above I mentioned structure and validation, this is your mongoose schema. Let say you have a sign up form on your page. You may not want to allow certain characters in the user name, or you may want to ensure the email address is valid when stored in your database.

var Any = new Schema({ any: {} }); var Any = new Schema({ any: Object }); var Any = new Schema({ any: Schema.Types.Mixed }); 因为这是个 schema-less type, 所以你可以赋值为任意类型, 但是 mongoose 无法自动检测并保存你的修改。 要告诉 Mongoose 你修改了 Mixed type 的值,调用 文档的 .markModified(path) 方法, 传入你的 Mixed 字段路径。query { topUser { fullName personalImage { ...fullImageData } } topArticle { title heroImage { ...fullImageData } } } fragment fullImageData on EmbeddedImage { url dimensions { width height } } Access and modify mongoose doc before save This library provides some amount of ready resolvers for fetch and update data which was mentioned above. And you can create your own resolver of course. However you can find that add some actions or light modifications of mongoose document directly before save at existing resolvers appears more simple than create new resolver. Some of resolvers accepts before save hook which can be provided in resolver params as param named beforeRecordMutate. This hook allows to have access and modify mongoose document before save. The resolvers which supports this hook are:Note: you will have to call doc.markModified() on the fields that you change if you go down this route.

UserTC.addRelation( 'friends', { resolver: () => UserTC.getResolver('findByIds'), prepareArgs: { // resolver `findByIds` has `_ids` arg, let provide value to it _ids: (source) => source.friendsIds, }, projection: { friendsIds: 1 }, // point fields in source object, which should be fetched from DB } ); UserTC.addRelation( 'adultFriendsWithSameGender', { resolver: () => UserTC.get('$findMany'), // shorthand for `UserTC.getResolver('findMany')` prepareArgs: { // resolver `findMany` has `filter` arg, we may provide mongoose query to it filter: (source) => ({ _operators : { // Applying criteria on fields which have // operators enabled for them (by default, indexed fields only) _id : { in: source.friendsIds }, age: { gt: 21 } }, gender: source.gender, }), limit: 10, }, projection: { friendsIds: 1, gender: 1 }, // required fields from source object } ); Reusing the same mongoose Schema in embedded object fields Suppose you have a common structure you use as embedded object in multiple Schemas. Also suppose you want the structure to have the same GraphQL type across all parent types. (For instance, to allow reuse of fragments for this type) Here are Schemas to demonstrate:A Mongoose model is a wrapper on the Mongoose schema. A Mongoose schema defines the structure of the document, default values, validators, etc., whereas a Mongoose model provides an interface to the database for creating, querying, updating, deleting records, etc.{ _id: 5a78fe3e2f44ba8f85a2409a, email: 'ada.lovelace@gmail.com', __v: 0 }Update RecordLet’s modify the record above by changing the email address and adding another field to it, all in a single operation. For performance reasons, Mongoose won’t return the updated document so we need to pass an additional parameter to ask for it: Mongoose Mongoose Schema Basics Bob Ziroll Read more posts by this author. Copy link Quote reply Collaborator varunjayaraman commented Jan 27, 2017 Yeah I don't think what you're asking for in terms of specifying a type like typeA | typeB is possible unless you compose your own custom schema for the subdocument or you used a Mixed type.

var mongoose = require('mongoose'); var ObjectId = mongoose.Schema.Types.ObjectId; var Car = new Schema({ driver: ObjectId }); // or just Schema.ObjectId for backwards compatibility with v2 Arrays 创造 SchemaTypes 或子文档数组。GA Tech Coding Bootcamp, Full Stack Web Developer, I enjoy playing video games, and I love to learn new things.A better way to structure data like this is to make a separate Schema of the nested data and use what are called ObjectIds to reference the ID of the object in its own collection:The first parameter to the Schema class constructor is a definition object. This object defines what paths a schema has. For example, the below userSchema has a name path and an age path.const mongoose = require("mongoose"); const Schema = mongoose.Schema; const bookSchema = new Schema({ title: String, publishedDate: Date, language: String, // "type" should be Schema.Types.ObjectId and "ref" should point // to the "ModelName" you choose when using mongoose.model("ModelName", modelSchema) publisher: { type: Schema.Types.ObjectId, ref: "Publisher" } }); module.exports = mongoose.model("Book", bookSchema); Now when you add a new book, you need to make sure that it has a valid reference to an existing publisher's _id attribute. If that publisher doesn't exist, you'll either need to submit a book without a publisher and add that in later, or make sure to create the publisher before you save the book to the database so you have a working reference to the publisher.

EmailModel .find({ email: 'ada.lovelace@gmail.com' // search query }) .then(doc => { console.log(doc) }) .catch(err => { console.error(err) })The document returned will be similar to what was displayed when we created the record:I am using Visual Studio Code, Node 8.9, and NPM 5.6. Fire up your favorite IDE, create a blank project, and let’s get started! We will be using the limited ES6 syntax in Node, so we won’t be configuring Babel.If you want to add additional resolvers connection and/or pagination - just install following packages and graphql-compose-mongoose will add them automatically.In Mongoose, a schema is a configuration object for a model. Schemas do not allow you to read and write from MongoDB, that's what models are for. But they do:

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